a. Project method or a project has been defined in various ways such as ‘it is that form of coordinated activity that’s directed towards the learning of significant skill or process. It also involves the acquisition of much useful information and inevitably inviolately affects attitudes and interests. (Wesley)

b. It is a problematic act carried to completion in its natural setting. (Kilpatrick)

c. A project is a test of real life that has been imported in school. (Ballard)

d. It is voluntary undertaking, which involves constructive efforts or thought and eventuates into subjective result. (Yhornos Long)

e it is a unit of activity in which pupils are made responsible for planning and purposing (Parker)It is a new teaching strategy and it has been evolved as a result of social tendency of education. The advocates are of this opinion the education should be related to life situations It is experience-centred teaching strategy. The exponent of project method is W.H. Kilpatrick. The main focus of this strategy of socialize a child.


It involves the following principles:

Principle of utility;

The problem of study is related with life situation of the learners.

Principle of readiness:

The learners are willing to perform it.

Principle of learning by doing:

Learner has to perform certain tasks in project strategy.

Learner gets freedom to work:

The learning situations are realistic.

Principle of socialization: it develops the feeling of co-operation and group work.


Kilpatrick has classified the project strategies under four types:

1) Constructive certain task. In this type learner has to complete

2) Artistic – This type of project develops the aesthetic taste of the learner.

3) Problem-centred-A problem is presented before the learner and he has to seek the solution of the problem.

4) Group Practice– A task is assigned in which group work is required to complete it.


1. Provision of a situation

A situation is identified or arranged in which some problems are available with interesting ingredient for the pupils.

2. Selection of Objectives

A teacher guides and facilitates his pupils in this phase too, to select and find out aims and objectives of the project being selected, keeping in mind real needs of pupils.

3. Planning

This is a very important step, so one must be careful in drawing a blueprint for a project. Planning should include a few alternatives. A discussion to exchange group ideas and views is very crucial. Suggestions must be critically examined and utilized.

4. Execution

Among group members are assigned duties in a way that all get activities of their choice and capability. No doubt, it needs patience of contributors to make it a success. In one project many activities can be developed. They all help in knowledge growth.

5. Evaluation

Work done on project must be evaluated by themselves (student group) and supervisor (teacher) as well, to locate the follies. Self-criticism is worth training giving. In this step objectives (pre-set) of that project are the standard and performance is measured against this standard.

6. Recording

Group/individuals must maintain a full record of various steps.Planning, discussions, assignment of duties, criticisms and such like other points are noted for future reference and guidance.

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