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B: MEANING OF EDUCATION FROM THE POINT OF VIEW OF WESTERN THINKERS

The meaning of the term Education, as understood by Western thinkers, has wider implications for a modern reader. In fact, the modern concept of ‘Education’ ower much to Western thinkers who have interpreted education as a developmental process. Important views are summed-up below.

(a) Thinkers of the past:

(i) According to Plato, “Education is the capacity to feel pleasure and pain at the right moment. It develops in the body and in the soul of the pupil all the beauty and all the perfection which he is capable of.”

(ii) According to Aristotle, Education is the creation of a sound mind in a sound body….. It develops man’s faculty especially his mind so that he may be able to enjoy the contemplation of supreme truth, goodness and beauty of which perfect happiness essentially consists.”

(iii)According to Comenius, “All who are born as human beings need education because they are destined to be real men, not wild beasts, dull animals, and clumps of wood.”

(b) Modern Thinkers:

(i) According to Pestalozzi, “Education is the natural, harmonius and progressive development of man’s innate powers.”

(ii) According to Froebel, “Education is unfoldment of what is already enfolded in the germ. It is the process through which the child makes internal, external.”

(iii) According t. John Dewey, “Education is the development of all those capacities in the individual which will enable him to control his environment and fulfil his responsibilities.”

(iv) According to Raymont, “Education is a process of development from infancy to maturity, the process by which he adopts himself gradually in various ways of his physical and spiritual environment.”

(v) According to T.P. Nunn, “Education is the complete development of the individuality of the child so that he can make an original contribution to human life according to the best of his capacity.”

(vi) Thompson defines Education as

“the influence of the environment on the individual with a view to producing a permanent change in his habits, behaviour, of thought and of attitude.”

(vii) According to John Adams, “Education is conscious and deliberate process in which one personality acts upon another in order to modify the development of that by the communication and manipulation of knowledge.”

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