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Some Important Teaching Aids

1. Chalk-Board

The chalk-board is one of the most valuable devices for making the teaching concrete and understandable. These are the cheapest and easily available means. These are considered to be an inseparable part of the class-room because of their utility in teaching. The teacher can make use of black-board (or chalk-board) to draw maps, figures, outlines or to write the summary of the lesson. He make use of chalk of different colours to show different areas or places on the map. Many vague statements can be made clear by using the chalkboard for sketches, outlines, diagrams, directions and summaries.

The chalk-board offers many educational opportunities in connection with the presentation of facts, principles, processes and procedures, making assignments of lessons and individual responsibilities, listing questions, problems, sources, references; giving direction, examination and tests, practicing individual drill or creative work. Group projects can be planned, illustrated and summarized by means of chalk-board techniques.

2. Bulletin-Boards

It is a display board on which learning material concerning topic is displayed. It is generally of the size of a black-board but sometimes even bigger depending upon the wall space available. It is generally in the form of a framed soft-board or straw board or cork-board or rubber sheets. Such a board may be specified for an individual subject. It may be used for displaying pictures, charts, posters, clippings, photographs or other learning material. It stimulates considerably students’ interest enthusiasm for a particular lesson when properly planned and developed.

3. Pictures

Pictures occupy an important place in visual aids. A History lesson can be made more interesting and understandable by showing pictures of Kings, Queens, important personalities, old cities and buildings, historical events etc.Pictures concretise the concepts. “They are representations of beautiful dreams of reality or at least beautiful dreams.” The pictures, portraits etc. can be used as teaching aids and they are quite useful in demonstration lesson. Abstract generalizations are always cumbersome. “Pictures will simplify the abstractions and help create and maintain interest.

4. Models

Models Maybe defined as recognizable three dimensional representation of real things. They reduce large objects to a size convenient for observation. Models represent realthings. A model can be useful in teaching if it

  • correctly represents the thing, the place or theevent etc.
  • is simple and comprehensible
  • exhibits only the relevant details.
  • is made of proper material or form
  • is according to the needs and interest of the students.

5. Objects and Specimens

These are also effective teaching aids. The saying, “A bird in hand is worth two in the bushes” acquires a new meaning when it is applied to the use of objects specimens as teaching aids.

Objects may be defined as real things which have been removed from units from their natural settings. Locally manufactured products, coins and stamps, relics, early tools etc. are some of the objects that can be used effectively in teaching.

Specimen refers to an object or its typical part which has been removed from the natural settings and environment.Objects and specimens are interest-arousing devices that possess the capacity of bringing into play all the five senses. To facilitate their use they should be placed in boxes, carefully labelled and stored in an easily accessible almirah.

6. Diagrams

A diagram is a simplified drawing to show inter- relationship primarily by means of lines and symbols. A good diagram is highly simplified as only the most essential elements are shown. To understand the ideas presented in diagrams, one is required to have a back ground of first-hand experience. Diagrams are of abstract character and to use them, effectively, as teaching aids a careful foundation work is a must.

Diagrams can be used for summary and review more effectively than for introduction. They should be used along with other teaching aids.

7. Charts

Sometimes charts are needed by the teacher to supplement his actual teaching. Charts may be defined as combination of graphic and pictorial media designed for orderly and logical visualizing of relationships between key facts and ideas. The main function of charts is to show relationships such as comparisons, relative amounts, developments, processes, classification and organization.A chart is a visual aid and it is a unique teaching aid which expresses the facts and ideas of the content through signs.

8. Tables

Tables are used to present data in a convenient and visual form. We are concerned about the various political social and economic developments for which data has to be analysed. For making the data purposeful and comprehensible it is presented in tabular form. We can show the growth in production, imports, exports, etc., in the tabular form. However it must be made clear to the pupils that the data in the table is meant only for quantitative understanding and are not required to be committed to memory. For best use of tabular data following points be given due consideration:

  • The tables to the intelligible should be according to the age group of pupils.
  • The data in tables be posted neatly.
  • An effort be made for to impart maximum knowledge economise through such tables. Tables should the time of learning.

9.Graphs

Graphs are flat pictures that use dots, lines or visualize numerical and statistical data to show statistics or relationships. They are made according to exact specifications and depict specifically quantitative data for analysis, interpretation or comparison. For example, we can use graphs to show relative positions of supply and demand of the year or month-wise. Graphs help in presenting the abstract ideas, through visual bars or images. Graphs can be studied quickly and call also be used for ready reference.

Types of Graphs

  • Picture graph.
  • Bar graph.
  • Line graph
  • Circle graph
  • Flannel graph

10. Slides and Film Strips

Slides are becoming increasingly popular as teaching aids in teaching. Slides are complete pictures in themselves, but in film strips some slides are shown in fixed order. These teaching aids are cheap and can be obtained easily. They can be stored and used a number of times. Slides and film strips can be used in the following ways:

  • Many abstract ideas can be concretised with the help of slides and film strips which help in making teaching clear, interesting and understandable.
  • With the help of slides and film strips, small things can be shown in a big form and shape.
  • Pupils are attracted towards pictures by nature so these can develop children’s interest.
  • The use of slides and strips brings variety in teaching.
  • The events seen through filmstrips and slides are retained in their memory by pupils for a longer period of time.

11. Radio

Radio is an audio aid. The speaker is not visible but can be heard. The speaker explains the topic with proper accent, pronunciation punctuation and modulation of voice to make the narration effective. Radio is a means of entertainment, but it is also used for education purposes.

12. Tape Recordings

It is another teaching aid available to teacher. It is a record of short talks by specialists on some topic. It has all the advantages of a broadcast talk. It is more useful than Radio in that it can be used any number of times. For recapitulation purpose, tape recorder is more useful. These talks provide an inspiration to the students. Such recordings can also be used to introduce a topic or develop a topic.

13. Television

The role of televisfon in the present day world is becoming more and more important and it is one of the most important teaching aids. It combines the advantages of a radio (broadcast) and of a film. This can he used for mass education. The topic of discussion are announced in advance and lessons from well qualified persons and specialists in their field are shown on T.V. Teacher can easily plan his work accordingly and in this way he can make use of T.V. as a teaching aid.

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