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8.2 Teaching Through Cognitive Techniques

Teaching and learning are the twin activities involved in the total educative process. In this sense, teaching and learning are inseparable. This makes the relationship between teaching and learning the same as that which exists between the mother and the child, the teacher and the taught. In the educative process, the teacher is to teach and the child is to learn. But the child is not a passive recipient of what the teacher proposes to give him: rather, he is an active partner in the successful completion of the process. But all this takes place in an environment which should be conducive to the acts of teaching and learning.

Concept of Teaching

Previously, teaching meant nothing more than mere “giving information and imparting knowledge.” It was the time when teaching was regarded as a bipolar process- the teacher and the subject being its two poles. The child was altogether ignored. No attention was given to his needs and desires. The child was a nonentity and the teacher and the subject-matter were considered more important than him. The child was measured by the adult yardstick. The subject-matter was read out, or told by the teacher and the child simply memorized it. Readymade material was given to him which sapped his energies.

Modern education has brought the child into limelight. He stands at the focus of the educative process. Consequently, the concept of teaching has undergone a radical change.

Now teaching is considered for overall development of the child. It focuses on cognitive development of the child which includes problem solving, thinking, creating, observing, imagining and growth of intelligence. In teaching, certain techniques are used which are helpful in cognitive development of the child. These techniques are called cognitive techniques.

Cognitive Techniques

  • Stimulation through unconscious perception and experimentation.
  • Use of models of natural objects and phenomena.
  • Application of systematization of knowledge.
  • Use of similarity and analogy between natural objects or phenomena.
  • Undertaking problem exercises and projects
  • Demonstrating simple experiments and toys.
  • Seeing paradoxes and tricks.
  • Watching films, video programs, TV programs, and computer programs.
  • Experiencing humour.
  • Visiting museums and centres.

Interdisciplinary cognitive techniques

  • Science for life (especially related to social issues. health, food, energy, and environment).
  • Applications of knowledge in technology.
  • Use of ITC.
  • History related to discoveries and scientists’ lives.
  • Analysis of quotations.
  • Use of literature and films.
  • Application of relation between science and art.
  • Use of philosophical aspects.

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