×

7.2 Ecological Influence on Behaviour

Ecology is the branch of science which deals with the interaction of living organisms with environment.

Environment is all that surrounds man and animal, Since time immemorial, environment has been playing a vital role in the life and living pattern of man. Every man is born in an environment. A part from his surrounding, man’s life on this earth is unthinkable. As long as civilization exists on this earth, man cannot but think of his environment. Man and his environment are inseparable.

So, environment is that which surrounds us, which exists around us. Everything which is external to us, which is surrounding us and which has effect on us is part of environment.

In the words of Woodworth “Environment covers all the outside factors that have acted on the individual since he began life.”

Dougless and Holland hold that “Environment is a word which describes the aggregate all of the external forces, influences the conditions, which affect the life, nature, behaviour and the growth, development and maturation of living organisms.”

According to another view, environment is the sum total of influencing factors which change conditions and circumstances as well as all that becomes the agent of change. These factors or conditions or circumstances modify life as well as get modified with the change of time.

From the above discussion on the meaning of Environment, we can move on to describe different kinds or types of Environment,We distinguish two main types of Environment. These Are:

1. Natural or Physical Environment

2. Social Environment

1. Natural or Physical Environment

Natural or physical environment comprises all those elements, factors or resources which belong to Nature or mother earth. All these elements or resources have surrounded man and have influenced his physical as well as mental health. These include air, water, forests, mineral, animals, birds.

2. Social Environment

Man is a social animal. Besides natural environment, he is a part and parcel of the social environment role in the growth and development of the individual. Social environment also includes cultural environment.

Besides, there are big and small units in the society which keep influencing the individual, directly or indirectly. These units are Family, School, State, National and International organizations, State and Central offices, political organizations and so on. Therefore, the different components of social environment must be properly preserved, maintained and kept pure.

3. Behaviour

Human behaviour results from two basic forces: Forces ‘inside’ the individual, and forces ‘outside’ the individual. The ‘inside’ forces mean man’s physical hungers, and his psychological urges; the ‘outside’ forces are one’s aims and objectives, expectation of reward, and other requirements of the society. An individual tries to modify his behaviour to meet his internal and external needs. Needs and requirements, therefore, are the basic causes of learning. These needs can also be classified in the following way:

  • Basic Needs. Food, shelter, sex, etc.
  • Psychological Needs. Satisfaction of urges and desires, pleasures and happiness.
  • Normative Needs. Attainment of aims and objectives,observing norms and values, acting according to the standards set by adults and society.

Behaviour, therefore, is prone to modification due to need-oriented learning, and is both complex and purposeful. Therefore, the modification of behaviour through learning towards the fulfilment of the individual’s needs in a socially approved way is the main concern of a teacher.

So in educational setting ecological influences are the environmental influences which include, seating arrangement, lighting, ventilation, drinking water, AV aids, instructional material etc. These factors can be considered as school factors which comprise the academic atmosphere.

School factors refer to academic environment prevalent in the school. A very important and significant condition of learning is the provision of academic and intellectual type of environment for the learners. The academic type of environment prevailing in the school is a perpetual inspiration for the children to learn more and more. The reason is that the children imbibe an intellectual type of frame of mind from the academic environment. That type of environment can be created:

  • By providing a separate room for study;
  • By providing books and journals and by having intellectual talks and discussions;
  • A good school library, and a reading room in the school can go a long way in creating academic type of atmosphere in the school;
  • Teachers should enthuse the learning spirit among students;
  • Friendly discussions among students on the lesson taught helps;
  • Teacher’s guidance from time to time helps in reading only useful books and material;
  • Participation in co-curricular activities rejuvenates pupils’ energy. “All work and no play makes Jack a dull boy” is a popular saying
  • By provision of good seating arrangement;
  • By arranging lighted, airy and ventilated classrooms;
  • By teaching with the help of attractive A.V aids.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *