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1.3 Continue…….

7. ‘Z’ Theory of Management

This theory has been evolved by William G. Ouchi, e Professor at the University of California, Los Angeles. Its salient features are given below:

  • Employment is life-time
  • There is slow promotion
  • There is no evaluation for the first ten years of service
  • An individual has adequate opportunities in the organization to move from one specialty to another
  • There is participative decision-making
  • All significant achievements are outcomes of team work and group effort
  • There is holistic concern for the employee which means that the employer not only provides work to the employee but also accepts. the obligation of looking after his physical, intellectual and moral development. A public announcement to this effect is made at the time of the induction of the employee

8. The System Theory of Management

It emphasized the view that each organization is a unified whole purposeful system composed of interrelated parts. Activity of one part affects the activity of the other part. Terms such as cooperation and interaction of separate departments, open and closed systems, system boundary and feed back were used.

9. Contingency Approach of Management According to this approach no single idea/ concept can yield the one best way of administration. Different ideas or concepts help in different situations. The best is one that is according to situation. So find out the “best” depends upon the wisdom of the manager.

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