• Improvements in quality of ECE shall be based on a concept of holistic development of the child that provides a stimulating, interactive environment, including play, rather than a focus on regimes that require rote learning rigid achievement standards.
  • The early childhood education (ECE) age group shall be recognised as comprising 3 to 5 years. At least one year pre-primary education shall be provided by the A state and universal access to ECE shall be ensured within the next ten years.
  • Provision of ECE shall be attached to primary schools, and these schools shall be provided with additional budget, teachers and assistants for this purpose.
  • For ECE teachers, a two-year specialised training in dealing with young children shall be a necessary requirement.
  • This training shall be on the basis of ECE revised national curriculum. The curriculum and support material for ECE shall take account of the cultural diversity of particular areas


Policy Actions:

  • Government shall provide the necessary financial resources to achieve the EFA goals.
  • All primary schools shall be upgraded to middle level.
  • International Development Partners shall be invited through a well-developed plan for expanding school facilities.
  • High priority shall be paid to reducing the drop-out rates. An important element of this effort should be to provide financial support to children who drop out because of poverty.
  • Schools shall be made more attractive for retaining the children by providing attractive learning environment and other measures.


Policy Actions:

  • Provision shall be expanded, particularly in the rural areas and of schools dedicated for girls. Priority shall be given to those locations where the ratio of secondary schools is low.
  • Student support shall be increased to prevent students from dropping out of school for financial reasons.
  • Schools shall introduce more student-centred pedagogies.
  • Counselling facilities shall be made available to students from the elementary level onwards in order to constructively utilize their energy, to deal with any displays of aggression amongst young students and to address any other psychological distress that a student may be in, by suggesting a suitable remedy.
  • Counselling at higher secondary level must also address the career concerns of young students and encourage them to take up studies as per the aptitude other than the “accepted” fields of study, beit technical, vocational or any other area of study
  • The integration restructuring process between secondary and upper secondary levels shall be facilitated by moving Grades 11 and 12 from college level and merging with higher secondary level schooling.
  • A system for ranking of primary and secondary educational institutions across the country shall be introduced with rankings based on result outcomes, extracurricular activities and facilities provided to the students, in order to encourage healthy competition between schools.
  • To create an order for excellence in the country, a “National Merit Programme” shall be introduced to award bright students


Policy Actions:

  • Government shall develop a national literacy curriculum and identify the instructional material and professional development programmes to support the curriculum. The curriculum shall be objective driven, so as to facilitate assimilation of trainees into mainstream economic activity.
  • Government shall develop and enforce minimum quality standards for organisations involved in literacy in the form of literacy certification and accreditation regime. The mehe literacy providers shall be required to offer the literacy V programmes according to the specified standards.
  • A system shall be developed to mainstream the students in non-formal programmes between the ages of 11 and 16 into public education system, and a system of equivalence shall be developed to permit such mainstreaming. New literates shall receive formal certification so as to facilitate their entry into government schools.
  • Linkages of non-formal education with industry and internship programmes shall be developed to enhance economic benefits of participation.
  • Horizontal linkages between schools and vocational/skills training centres shall be established.
  • Government schools shall initiate non-formal education stream for child labourers. Children involved in various jobs or work shall be brought within the ambit of non-formal education system with need-based schedules and timings.
  • Special literacy skills programmes shall target older child labourers, boys and girls (14 to 17 years). Special educational stipends shall be introduced to rehabilitate child labourers.
  • Arrangements shall be made to use school buildings for adult literacy after school hours.
  • Government shall develop guidelines for post- programme initiatives. Regular follow-up shall be made a part of the literacy programs.
  • Steps shall be taken to ensure that teachers for adult learners and non-formal education are properly trained.
  • Community and private sector involvement in awareness programmes, content, design and availability of facilities, shall be mobilised.

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