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1.3 EDUCATION TYPES

Types of Education:

There are three types of education:

  • Formal education
  • Non formal education
  • Informal education

1. Formal education:

The process of teaching which involves supervision, instruction, set plan, definite aims and principles, amounts to formal education. Its characteristics are;

I) Planned with a particular purpose in view.

Formal education is planned with a particular end in view. It is given in school, college and similar other institutions which are established with the purpose. In this way it is direct schooling, instruction and tuition.

II) Limited to a specific period.

Formal education is limited to a specific period or stage. It is provided according to certain set rules and regulations. It is in the form of systematic, planned and guided instruction.

III) Weil-defined and systematic curriculum.

Formal education has a well-defined and systematic curriculum. This curriculum is based on certain aims and objectives. These aims are in conformity with the needs of the society and the state.

IV) Given by specially qualified teachers.

Formal education is given by specially qualified teachers. They are supposed to be efficient in the art of instruction.

V) Includes activities outside the classroom.

In modern progressive schools, the process of education is not merely restricted to the four walls of the classroom. There are more activities outside the classroom than inside it.

VI) Observes strict discipline.

Formal education observes strict discipline. The pupil and the teacher are both aware of the fact and engage themselves in the process of education.

2. Non formal education:

Non-formal education is one of the recent concepts getting into use. Involvement in non-formal education has increased as a result of out interest in making education a life- long affair rather than a matter of formal schooling. Its characteristics are:

  • Derived from the expression ‘formal education’.
  • Outside the realm of formal Education.
  • Conscious and deliberate.
  • To be organised for a homogeneous group.
  • Serving the needs of the identified group.

(i) Derived from the expression ‘formal education’.

The expression ‘non-formal’ in non-formal education has been derived from the expression ‘formal’ in formal education by using the pre-fix non

(ii) Outside the realm of formal Education.

Non-formal, education is structured and planned, but outside the realm of formal education. “Any organised, systematic educational activity, carried outside the framework of the established formal system, whether operating separately or as an important feature of some broader activity, that is intended to serve identifiable learning clienteles and learning objectives.”

(iii) Conscious and deliberate.

Non-formal education deliberately organised is consciously and systematically and implemented.

(iv) To be organised for a homogeneous group.

Non-formal education should be organised for a homogeneous group. Such a group has to be identified in terms of their learning needs.

(V) Serving the needs of the identified group.

Non-formal education should be programmed to serve the needs of the identified group. This will necessitate flexibility in design of the curriculum and the scheme of evaluation.

3. Informal education:

Informal education is “the process by which a person imbibes attitudes, develops skills, cultivates values and acquires knowledge, without any organisation or system about it. This would include the deliberate attempts of parents and elders in the family and community to help the young ones grow and adapt themselves to the environment. Informal education would also include all incidental learning that takes place while at work or at play and during travels as well as spontaneous learning through films, radio and television.” Its characteristics are:

  • Incidental and Spontaneous.
  • No-pre-planned nor deliberate.
  • Not imparted by any specialised agency.
  • No prescribed timetable or curriculum.
  • May be negative education also.

(i) Incidental and Spontaneous.

Informal education is incidental •spontaneous. There is no conscious effort involved in it. Courtesies, gentleness, etc. learnt in a market place or in a hotel or in one’s sitting room is informal education.

(ii) No-pre-planned nor deliberate.

Informal education is an educative activity which is neither pre-planned nor deliberate. The child learns many habits, manners and patterns while living with others or moving in different spheres like home, society, groups etc.

(iii) Not imparted by any specialised agency.

Unlike formal education, informal education is not imparted by any specialised agency such as school or college.

(iv) No prescribed timetable or curriculum.

Informal education is not given according to any fixed time-table or through formal means of education. There is no set curriculum required. Informal education consists in experiences and actual living in the family or community.

(v) May be negative education also.

Informal education may take to negative direction also. Instances are not rare when one learns stealing, or some other forms of misbehaviour from the experiences which the child may casually have in the street, in the market, in the cinema hall mator in some other such place.

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