Stage 1. Devising a Simulation Situation:

Before starting teaching under simulation, it is important to ascertain that student-teachers possess the necessary background of the technique. At this stage, it is desired the student-teachers be given sufficient understanding of the concept of simulation and simulated teaching mechanism of the technique, the role of student-teachers and other relevant matters. While devising simulated situation, the teacher-educator should bear in mind the following points:

  1. Objectives: Objectives should be very much precise and clear.
  2. Motivation: Participants should be well motivated in advance.
  3. Involvement: Participants should be involved to perform certain roles.
  4. Flexibility: Flexibility in approach and expression should exist but under structured guidelines.

Stage 2. Role assignment:

Assign letter designation, A through J, in a group of ten student-teachers. Agree on a system of rotating the role assignments, so that each individual has a chance to become teacher (actor), pupil (foil), and observer.

Stage 3. Decide the skill to be practiced:

Suggest topics that fit the skill. Select one topic for the first exercise (or session) and decide on other educational topics so that each (teacher) can select one that makes him comfortable in his role.

Stage 4. Specific Grouping:

The student-teachers are divided into specific groups based on their teaching subjects, teaching skills, their abilities and interests. They are also assigned their roles as every student-teacher is to play three roles, that of a teacher (actor), a pupil (foil or peer) and an observer.

Stage 5. Planning schedule of teaching:

Now the schedule of teaching is planned in every respect. Each trainee who is assigned the role of a teacher is now helped in the selection of a suitable topic of his interest in view of the skills to be practiced. He is further helped in preparing mini or micro lesson plan. The trainees who will play the role of pupils are also helped in deciding and planning for the roles of pupils. The anticipated class room interaction is also planned with respect to the role of the trainees as observers. The procedures and techniques of observations are also decided and planned in advance. The decision regarding the use of these observations is providing feedback to the teacher-actions is also taken in advance.

Stage 6. Practice Session:

Conduct the first practice session, provide the actor with feedback on his performance and be prepared, if necessary, to alter the procedure.As soon as the practice session

s are working smoothly and each person has had an opportunity to be actor, increase
difficulty of the task by privately instructing the foils or the restricting actor’s role.

Stage 7. Alteration, if needed:

Be prepared to alter the procedure, change topics and move on to the next skill so as to present a significant challenge to each actor and to keep interest as high as possible. The task should be neither too high nor too easy for the participants.


Cruickshanks (1968) developed a teacher training system which can present the student with upto thirty-one different simulated problems related to teaching. The aim of this ‘Teaching Problems Laboratory is for the participant to assume the role of the teacher and to practice solving the critical teaching problems he has identified. The participant is introduced into the situation as if he were a new teacher in a school.He is provided with information and opportunities to solve the problems of a beginning teacher by exposure to a variety of potential solutions to particular problems and giving him the opportunity of observing the results of his chosen line of action. He is given other necessary material etc.

Cruickshanks provided experiences in the form of preparation and teaching of meaningful lessons, the construction of a class room test, the holding of parent conference, locating instructional material, developing a reading programme, learning to use records, preparing behavior objectives for learning and so on.

He found that student teachers were favourably disposed to his system and considered it much more helpful than lectures and more valuable to them than the two-weeks of teaching practice that it replaced.

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