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MAXIMS OF TEACHING

Teaching activities and instructional procedure are performed by using maxims of teaching Teaching activities and instructional procedure are performed by using maxims of teaching. The term ‘Maxim of Teaching’ may be defined as rules for presenting difficult terms and concepts to make them easy to comprehend in classroom teaching.A teacher employs some specific ways to organize teaching to make terms and concepts communicable upto the cognition or mental process of learners. It is help full in developing communicative competency.

The following are the main features of a maxim ofteaching:

1. Teaching maxim helps in organizing teaching activities.

2. It makes presentation of terms and concept easily understandable.

3. It enables teacher to make his communication effective for the mental level of the students.

4. It is important component of instructional procedure which is used in designing and presenting content in an effective way.

TYPES OF MAXIMS OF TEACHING

The following are some important maxims of teaching:

1. From Simple to complex,

2. From know to unknown,

3. From part to whole,

4. From whole to part

5. From concert to abstract,

6. From direct to indirect

7. From particular to general,

8. From analysis to synthesis,

9. From empirical to rationale,

10. From psychological to logical,

11. To follow nature etc.

These maxims of teaching have been developed by the sociology, psychology and foundations: philosophy, sociology, technology. These are known as tactics and devices.

For example, from particular to general, the maxims has same way of organizing activities in educational technology is known. The brief description of these maxims of teaching has been provided in the following paragraphs:

(1) From Simple to Complex:

The nature of this maxim is more psychological, that a child learns easy things and avoid complex or difficult contents. Under this maxim, simple terms and concepts are taught first then proceeds to complex thing. In language teaching, simple sentences awareness is given to practice then proceeds to form complex sentences. In teaching history and geography, local awareness is provided after that related complex facts and concepts are taught.Similarly in maths teaching, simple problems or simple questions are given to practice after that complex type questions and problems are taught. A teacher should have the understanding of development stage of the students and individual differences. The content of teaching is divided into simple and difficult components. Teacher can easily use the maxim of teaching in his presentation.

(2) From Known to Unknown:

It assumes that student acquired knowledge is given by linking with actual knowledge, the student can learn better and retain for a longer time. A teacher introduces new knowledge by linking with previous knowledge, thus he makes use of maxim from known to unknown

The alphabets are taught by linking with objects and things which a child knows. Addition is taught after providing the awareness of numbers. The characteristics and functions of roots and leaves are taught by showing them. The student may easily learn and retain them for longer period.

(3) From Whole to Part:

The maxim of teaching is given by this Gestalt school of psychology or perception. In human perception, we perceive the whole first then to part. For example, if we perceive a picture of thing, the whole is such a way that student can perceive whole then its parts because whole attracts first. In language teaching sentence functions as an unit. The words, letters and spellings are its parts. The sentence is perceived first than its words and letters. In geography teaching, regional method is based on the maxim whole to part. To provide the awareness of region is given after countries of the region are taught.

(4) From Part to Whole:

B.F. Skinner gives emphasis on part to whole maxims of teaching. He assumes that a student learn better if the content is presented in small parts. The first fundamental principle of this strategy principles includes dividing whole into small steps or parts. Both maxims of teaching are used in preparing instructional material.

(5) From Concret to Abstract:

It is also psychological rule of learning. The child has the curiosity to know about objects and things which are around him. The learning of a child is from perception and experience about the objects. After perception, concepts are formed which are partially concret and partially abstract in nature. At the primary stage, letters and numbers are presented in concrete form then proceeds in its abstract form. A child develops his vocabulary by perceiving domestic things, objects. of this social and physical environment. It is a natural procedure of learning. The teacher should try to present his concret form then its abstract form. In arithmetic teaching, numbers and its rules are taught with the help of things and objects. In history and geography, time sense and place sense can be easily developed by using time line, maps and charts.

(6) From Direct or Seen to Indirect:

The awareness of certain things and events can not be provided directly or some time difficult. A teacher should take help of things and events, which are directly related or in contact. New terms and concepts can be easily taught by related to their experiences.

(7) From Particular to General:

The particular fact must be presented to children before giving them general rules. Particular is more definite than general. The study of particular facts should lead the children to frame general rules. The rules of grammar, science and Maths are based on this principle. For example, the definition of adjective may be arrived at after the pupil describe a number of objects like red pencil, small boy, white cow etc.

(8) From Analysis to Synthesis:

This maxim is given by cognitive psychology. The analysis is a mental process. Every phenomenon is multi dimension, therefore, it is to be analysed into its components. An effective teacher first analyses the various aspects of a content then he tries to integrate or synthesis. The analysis and synthesis both are mental process. This maxim is most frequently used in creative teaching.

(9) From Empirical to Rationale:

A child learns by doing or experiencing. The learning by doing is most popular teaching technique. The observation of child has the significant role in his learning process. A child acquires most of his learning through observations. The learning by imitation is also based on observation. In the process of education, empirical and logical both type of knowledge is essential. The activities of teaching should be so organized that can provide new experience through observation then teacher should proceed logical aspect of it. The maxim also develops logical attitude among children. The maxim of teaching is employed in teaching language, mathematics, science and social subjects.

(10) From Psychological to Logical:

A teacher analyses teaching content into sub-content or topic, each sub-topic is analysed into units. The sub-topics are arranged in a logical sequence then units of each sub- topic are further arranged in logical sequence. This sequence should function psychologically. It may suit to students learning. In ancient time logical sequence was given importance but now psychological sequence is considered most-important in teaching learning process. In programmed institution, material, workability of a logical sequence is evaluated psychologically by preparing a scalogram. In psychological sequence several factors are taken into consideration interests age-level, comprehension level, curiosity, previous knowledge (entering behaviours) and learning of the children or learners. The psychological sequence is a natural way of learning.

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