3.1 BLOOM’S TAXONOMYThe educational objectives are divided into three domains according to this taxonomy. These area) Cognitive domainb) Affective domainc) Psychomotor domain


It deals with thinking process and mental faculties. It is further divided in six sub groups by Bloom in 1956.

1. Knowledge:

(i) Knowledge is defined as the remembering of previously learned material.

(ii) This is the lowest level of learning.

(iii) This involves recalling of simple facts to complete theories.

(iv) This includes:

  • Knowledge of facts eg, solids expand on heating.
  • Knowledge of terms e.g; Abiogenesis.
  • Knowledge of principles e.g: Boyles law, Charles law.
  • Knowledge of concepts e.g; force, solubility.
  • Knowledge of methods and procedures e.gscientific method.

2. Comprehension:

(i) Comprehension is defined as the ability to grasp the meaning of material. –

(ii) This may be shown by:

Translating material

(iv) Interpreting material

(v) Estimating future trends
(vi) Level of learning is one step higher to that of knowledge.

(vii)Example: Explain Newton’s third law of motion.

3. Application:

(i) Application refers to the ability to use learned material in new and concrete situation.(ii) This include application of rules, methods, concepts, principles, laws and theories.

(iii) This require higher level of understanding.

(iv) Example: Why does water pipe burst when temperature falls to 0°C.

4. Analysis:

Analysis refers to the ability to break down material into its components parts so that its organizational structure may be understood.

(ii) This includes:

a) Identification of parts.

b) Analysis of relationship between parts.

c) Recognition of organizational principles.

(iii) Level of learning is higher than that of comprehension and application.

(iv) Example: Analyze the organizational structure of art,music or writing.

5. Synthesis:

(i) Synthesis refers to the ability to put parts together to form a new whole.

(ii) This may involve:

a) Production of a new speech or theme

b) Production of research proposal

c) Production of scheme for classifying information’s

(iii) This lead to formulation of new patterns or structures

(iv) Example: write a creative short story.

6. Evaluation:

  • Evaluation is concerned with the ability to judge the value of material like novel, report or poem for a given purpose.
  • Judgments are based on definite criteria.
  • This is the highest level of learning outcome in cognitive hierarchy.
  • Example: Evaluate the poetry of Allama Iqbal.

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