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4.9 INDUCTIVE METHOD

In this method, the child is enabled to arrive at the general conclusion, establish laws or formulate generalizations through the observation of particular facts, and concrete examples. A universal truth is proved by showing that, if it is true for a particular case and is further true for a reasonably adequate number of cases, it is true for all such cases. The formula or generalization is thus arrived at through a convincing process of reasoning and solving of problems. After a number of concrete cases are understood, the student can successfully attempt the generalization. For instance, the students are conducting a number of experiments to arrive at conclusion that air has weight. In a geometry lesson, by measuring the angles of a triangle, come to the conclusion that their sum is equal to two right angles. In a grammar lesson, the teacher while teaching ‘noun’ may give examples and then trip the pupils to frame a definition. Thus the nach is mainly developmental.

MERITS

  • It is easy to understand a grammatical or mathematical principle established through a number of simple examples. The doubts, about, how and why of a formula, are clarified in the very beginning.
  • It is a logical method.
  • It gives the opportunity of active participation to the students in the discovery of a formula.
  • It is based on actual observation, thinking and experimentation.
  • It reduces dependence on memorization and homework.
  • When a new rule is to be taught, inductive approach is the best.
  • It gives freedom from doubt and helps in understanding.

DRAWBACKS

1) It is limited in range. It contains the process of discovering the formula with the help of a sufficient number of cases, but ‘what next’ is not provided in it. The discovery of a formula does not complete the study of the topic. A lot of supplementary work and practice is needed to fix the topic in the mind of the learner.

2) Inductive reasoning is not absolutely conclusive. Three or four cases are picked up to generalizean observation. Therefore the process establishes a certain degree of probability which can, of course, be increased and made more valid by increasing the number of cases braild

3) It is likely to be laborious and time-consuming.

4) At the advanced stage, it is not so useful as some of the unnecessary details and explanations may become ani dull and boring.

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