Planning or Pre-active phase refers to that stage of teaching plans his teaching unit or programme to produce desired learning outcomes. M. Lawrence Stolurow (1965) names it the Pre-turorial phase of teaching. The following operations are carried out at the planning stage.

(1) Formulation of Instructional Objectives (in the light of pupils entry-behaviour);

(ii) Taking decision about the content or subject-matter(to be taught);

(iii) Sequencing elements of the content or subject matter

(iv) Deciding teaching strategies to be adopted;


Distributing the teaching strategies.

i) Formulation of Instructional Objectives

Instructional objectives are decided keeping in view the overall educational perspective on the one hand, and the specific unit of content material on the other hand. The instructional objectives with relevant specifications are to be translated into desirable learning outcomes. This requires clear idea of the entering behaviour, the available learning environment, the average level of pupil attainments and the nature of terminal behaviour expected.

ii) Taking Decision about the content or Subject-matter

It is in the light of specifications of objectives that the teacher decides about the size of the subject-matter or content material. This aspect of the planning phase refers to:

(i) The proposed curricular needs

(ii) The expected terminal behaviour

(iii) The proposed information or knowledge elements to be taught.

(iv) The motivation to be provided.

(v) The teacher’s preferences for aspects related to thetopics.

iii) Sequencing Elements of Content

No unit of content, big or small, should be presented haphazardly. It is during the pre-acting phase that the teacher arranges the elements of content in a logical sequence, gives each elements a psychological treatment to fix the subject- matter in the mind of the pupils.

iv) Deciding and Developing Teaching Strategies

The teacher decides and develops teaching strategies, keeping in view the nature of the subject content to be taught as well as the understanding level of the pupils. This is an important aspect of the planning phase for, the success of teaching much depends upon the teacher’s method.

v) Distributing the Teaching Strategies

The teacher must also decide as to which teaching strategy is to be used at a certain stage of teaching and for what unit of the content. This means, the teacher must have clear answers in his mind to such questions as:

1. When shall I use the model or a chart?

2. When shall I use questions of different types?

3. When shall I use the chalk-board? etc.

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