9.6.2 Changing Pedagogical Models

Acquisition of knowledge and skillsIntelligent thinking and knowledge application
Individual taskCollaborative work
Passive learning (listener)Active learning (collaborator)
Printed mediaTechnological tools
Grade focusAchievement focus
National perspectiveGlobal perspective
Independent effortsCombined efforts
Abstract learning (facts)Authentic learning (relationships inquiry, invention, understanding)
Rote learning (drill and practice)Problem solving (communication. access, expression)
Paper-and-pencil tests (Norms referenced) Demonstrations and performances (criterion-referenced)
Discipline basedIntegrative/interdisciplinary/trans- disciplinary approaches
Source: Cunningham, and Cordeiro, (2003). Educational leadership

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