9.6.1 Types of Change

Change can be categorized into two types.

Hardware Types

These changes are introduced by additions to facilities such as classrooms, equipment, books and play grounds.

Software Types

These affect the content and range of the curriculum itself. They may k related to the methods of delivery recommended by curriculam initiators designers and developers.

Forms of Change

Change can occur in the following forms:


In this change, one element replaces another previously in use. Examples a new textbooks, new equipment or the replacement of teachers and administrators.


This involves change in existing structures rather than a complete replacement of the whole curriculum, syllabus or course of study.


This is the introduction of a new component without changing old elements or patterns. New elements are added to the existing program without seriously disturbing the main structure and content of the prescribed curriculum. These could be support inputs such as audio-visual aids, workshops and equipment.


This involves the rearrangement of the curriculum in order to implement desired changes. It may also involve the sharing of resources among a group of schools or institutions.

Axioms Related to Curriculum Change

  • Curriculum change is inevitable and desirable.
  • The curriculum is a product of its time.
  • Curriculum changes of earlier periods often coexist and overlap curriculum changes of later periods.
  • Curriculum change results only as people are changed.
  • Curriculum development is basically a process of making choices from among alternatives.
  • Curriculum development never ends.
  • Curriculum development is more effective comprehensive, not piecemeal, process.if it is a
  • Curriculum development starts from where the curriculum is. (Oliva, 2001)

Emerging Trends

Following developments are likely to characterize the curriculum during the first decade of the 21″ century:

  • Increasing importance of national and state standards
  • Movement toward school-based curriculum development
  • Greater influence of professional organizations such as the National Council of Teachers of English.
  • Continuing interest in constructivist curriculum
  • Development of new approaches in vocational education
  • In addition to job-specific skills, an increased emphasis on generic skills that can be transferred to almost any career
  • Integrating academic and career education
  • Development of an integrated curricula
  • Institutionalization of technology (Glatthorn, 2000)

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