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7.2 FACTORS AFFECTING Curriculum Development IN PAKISTAN

Curriculum development is influenced by several factors. Several factors affect all curriculum development in meeting the needs of 21st century learners in both organized academic settings and corporation learning centers.

Blueprinting curriculum development requires selecting learning goals, designing knowledge delivery models while creating assessment methods for individual and group progress.

Factors affecting curriculum development include government norms,which in turn brings other factors into the process. Valid curriculum development requires awareness of the diversity of the target community socially, financially and psychologically.

Politics

Politics affect curriculum development in numerous ways. How politics influences curriculum design and development starts with funding. Public educational institutions rely on funding for hiring personnel, building and maintaining facilities and equipment.All aspects of curriculum depend on local, provincial and national political standards. From defining goals, interpreting curricular materials to approving examination systems, politics affects curriculum development.National ideology and philosophy have a tremendous influence on the education system because:

  • Politics determine and define the goals, content, learning experiences and evaluation strategies in education.
  • Curricular materials and their interpretation are usually heavily influenced by political considerations.
  • Political considerations may play a part in the hiring of personnel.
  • Funding of education is greatly influenced by politics..
  • Entry into educational institutions and the examination systems are heavily influenced by politics.

Economic

Economics influences curriculum#1358494 development. Curriculum developed for in house training in corporations focuses on educating employees for promotions that bring better returns in profits. Nations financing education expect an economic return from educated students contributing to the country’s economy with global competition abilities in technical fields

Curriculum content influences learner goals, standards for academic achievement with an underlying influence of the nation’s economy. One of the reasons why education is financed by governments is to improve the country’s economy. Therefore, the national curriculum should concern itself with the requirements of the economy.

Perhaps you are wondering how the economy of the affects the curriculum. The children you teach will need to be employed The skills needed by industry should be translated into the content and learning experiences of these children. The skills, knowledge base and attitudes required by industry should be developed in the classroom. country As a teacher, you require classroom supplies such as:

  • Textbooks,
  • Charts,
  • Equipment, and
  • Chemicals for science experiments.

These materials are products of industry. Without these materials, learning is compromised. It is therefore crucial that serious consideration be given to economic demands when developing the curriculum.

Social Factors

A multicultural society also influences curriculum design. It helps the curriculum reflect a complex society. Factors of diversity include religion, race, gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, age, and also children with different kinds of disabilities, Diversity has been a major issue in schools since the beginning.

When you examine the curriculum being offered in your country, one question you may need to deal with is the extent to which social factors or social considerations influenced the development of the curriculum.

Society has its own expectations about the aims and objectives that should be considered when designing the curriculum. It also has a perception of what the product of the school system should look like. It is therefore necessary for curriculum designers to take into account these societal considerations. If this does not happen, the curriculum becomes irrelevant.

Many groups are residing in Pakistan. These groups feel that including these subjects in the curriculum will undermine their belief systems. The same groups of people would not tolerate a curriculum that does not include religious and moral education.

The design of curricular materials and their presentation should accommodate the culture of the society that the curriculum is seeking to serve. You should, however, be sensitive to the fact that the curriculum can be used to perpetuate inequities. You may have a curriculum that is gender biased against female children because it includes instructional materials that portray negative attitudes towards women and girls.

It is therefore possible for culture to have both positive and negative influences on the curriculum. There are a number of groupings inthe society in which you live.

These can be professional associations, cultural groups and religious organizations. The list is endless. These groups can bring their views to bear on curriculum design. This is so because any curriculum of value must result from the broad consultation of a wide range of stakeholders.

Technological

Technology driven curriculum development is the norm of the 21st century. The computer technology of the 21st century influences curriculum development at every level of learning.

Learning centers and classroom increasingly provide computers as requisite interaction for studies among students. Technological multimedia use influences educational goals and learning experiences among students.

The computer is the latest technological innovation that will have a significant impact on education and society. If you are not computer literate, you may feel that you are not up-to-date.

In your area, you may have noticed that a number of schools have introduced computing as one of the subjects. The intention is to equip the learners with the requisite computer skills and knowledge.

In addition to computers, other forms of electronic media are being used in teaching. These have provided a variety of learning experiences and have facilitated individualized learning. Curriculum designers cannot afford to ignore technology and its influence on the curriculum.

Technology is sometimes fearful for teachers, but it should simply be viewed as another tool to help teachers. It has many positive qualities that can really affect the curriculum. For example, it can help accelerate the pace of the curriculum. Also, technology certainly helps supplement it with materials that cannot be accessed just from paper textbooks and lecture.

Diversity

Curriculum development affect from diversiny opens learning opportunities. Social diversity including religion, culture and social grouping affects curriculum development because these characteristics influence the types of topics and methods for teaching information. Developing relevant curriculum takes into account society’s expectations, accommodating group traditions and promoting equality.

Learning Theories

Psychology of learning theories affects curriculum development. Both child and adult learning theories within the psychology field influence curriculum development. Understanding the psychology behind leaming theories implemented in curriculum developme maximizes leaming with content, delivery, interactive activities and experiences initiated at the most opportune teaching moment.

Theories of learning and child development have to be considered when designing the content of the curriculum and how it is delivered. Learning can be maximized by ensuring that activities and experiences are introduced at the most ‘teachable’ moment.

Environment

Environment issues affect curriculum development. World awareness and action toward reversing and ending pollution continues affecting curriculum development. Over time, people have become insensitive to their surroundings and natural resources.

This has affected the sky, the land and the sea. The end result is that humanity is being adversely affected by these in-considerations Industrial wastes have polluted the world. For example, the ozone layer in the atmosphere, which protects us from harmful radiation from the sun, is being depleted. People want this redressed. It is through education that remediation can be effected. Consideration for the environment must of necessity influence curriculum development to ensure the survival of future generations.Typical elementary classrooms teach recycling and healthy environmental practices. Higher education in the sciences offers environmentally-focused degrees.

Classroom management

Classroom management is another factor that influences curriculum design. It is about achieving order in the classroom so productive learning can occur. The ultimate goal of classroom management is to promote learning. Accomplished learning means the teacher is getting the curriculum across to the students, which is his or her ultimate goal in their career.

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