7.1.2 Curriculum change Phases

The following six-phase strategy has been adopted for implementing curriculum change:

  • Evolution of curriculum objectives (by level)
  • Development of scheme of studies (by level).
  • Development of syllabus of each subject.
  • Development of textbooks/instructional materials
  • Review/approval of textual material
  • Teacher training

1.Developing Objectives

Curriculum objectives are basically derived from the recommendations of National Education Policy, national level seminars and other forums (e.g. forums of the Inter- Board Committee of Chairmen (IBCC) and research studies conducted at provincial curriculum centers). The National Bureau of Curriculum and Textbooks (NBCT) prepare the draft of objectives; which are widely circulated among the provincial institutions responsible for curriculum development, teacher training and examination.

Based on their views/comments, these objectives are finalized. They are subsequently translated into the specific teaching objectives for various subjects. Several factors are considered in finalizing curriculum objectives; including the requirements that objectives should:

  • Be precise,
  • Assist in the selection of teaching strategy,
  • Produce (or contribute to) a designated behavior pattern;
  • Enable the teachers to measure or evaluate the quality and effectiveness of learning.

2. The studies Scheme The scheme of studies is based on three key factors:

  • Th national education policy
  • M ket demand
  • Global issues that relate to new or contemporary education dimensions.

Task work in this area is undertaken with active participation of the provincial government, research organizations and experts; as well as feedback from the IBCC.

3. Development of Syllabi

Based on the objectives and scheme of studies, subject specific syllabi are prepared in consultation with:

  • Provincial curriculum centers
  • Subject experts
  • Psychologists
  • Serving teachers

Collectively, they ensure that the syllabi, in all respects, satisfy the following conditions:

  • They are based on the needs of the learner/child
  • They take into account the existing knowledge and environmental experience of the learner
  • The developmental level of the learner is considered in the cognitive, effectiveness and psycho-motor domains
  • The contents should be focused on attaining the objective(s).

4.Textbook Development

Provincial Textbook Boards are responsible for development of text-books according to the approved syllabi. Established lists of textbook writers in various subjects are kept.

From these lists, invitations are issued to writers to submit draft materials within the prescribed syllabus parameters. Selections are made on the basis of the quality and relevance of materials submitted to local situations.

Finally, the selected materials are transformed into textbooks, the final versions of which are sent to the NBCT for approval.

The mission statement of the National Textbook and Learning Materials Policy & Plan of Action (2007-2010) is to introduce a well regulated system of competitive publishing of textbooks and learning through enhanced public-private partnership’ through encouraging and building capacity of private publishers and to ensure that “Textbook Boards are transformed into competent facilitating, regulating and monitoring authorities”.

Text-books are produced by the Provincial Text-books Boards Recently system of open competition for textbooks has been introduced The syllabi are common to all the provinces and to that extent the curriculum is centralized. However, the provinces are free to interpret the outline of a course in view of the conditions existing in that province. The Text-Book Boards develop books up to grade XII.

All government schools in the country are expected to prescribe textbooks which follow the national curriculum and which have been developed by the Textbook Boards.

The Textbook Boards select authors for the textbooks, who submit the manuscript for-approval by a relevant Board. Approval by the board is followed by the submission to the Curriculum Wing of the Federal Ministry of Education which ensures that the textbooks are consistent with the national curriculum.

New Textbook Policy

Main features are:

  • Improved quality of education through quality textbooks at affordable prices,
  • Competitive publishing of textbooks by public & privatepublishers,
  • Textbook boards will become facilitating & regulating authorities. Will approve textbooks.
  • Controversial material (cultural, religious, and ethnic) shall not be included in textbooks.Source: (http://www.moe.gov.pk)

5. Review and Approval

A National Review Committee, comprising five or six members includes: at least one expert from the Syllabus Formulation Committee; two subject experts; two schoolteachers (one teaching the relevant material and one from a teacher-training institute).On receipt of textual materials from PTBB, this committee conducts textbook reviews based on the following parameters:

  • The book truly reflects the curriculum
  • It meets the objectives stated in the curriculum
  • The book does not contain any material repugnant to Islamic And Pakistani ideology.

In the case of approval, the textbook is sent back for publishing and distribution. In case of objection, the specific complaints are relayed along with revision recommendations.

It may be noted that the process of curriculum reform in Pakistan has been introduced as part of the successive series of national education policies.

6. Teacher training

Teacher training for curriculum implementation is the exclusive responsibility of the provincial government.

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