Content is defined as the subject matter of the teaching learning process and it includes the knowledge (facts, concepts, generalizations, principles, and so forth), processes or skills associated with the knowledge base and the values associated with subjects or whatever is being learnt. (Print 1993)

Hyman defined content as consisting of knowledge (ie. facts explanations, principles, definitions), skills and processes (i.e. reading. writing, calculating, critical thinking, decision making, communicating and values (i.e. beliefs about matters concerned with good and bad, right and wrong, beautiful and ugly (Hyman, 1973)

According to Kennedy, (1990) content knowledge has three components which teachers require in order to be effective practitioners:

  • Subject matter knowledge. Facts, principles, generalizations and so forth found in the subject concerned.
  • Pedagogical content knowledge: the methods used by the teacher to translate subject matter knowledge into meaningful understanding for learners, i.e. metaphors, rhyme, sayings, smiles etc.
  • Curricular knowledge: understanding of the curriculum requirements of the context to teach the subject matter knowledge.

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