6.5.2 Principles to Follow In Organizing the Learning Contents

1. Balance:

Content curriculum should be fairly distributed in depth and breadth of the particular learning or discipline. This will ensure that the level or area will not be overcrowded or less crowded. A balanced curriculum implies structure and order in its scope and sequence (means) leading to the achievement of educational objectives (ends). According to Ronald C. Doll a balanced for a given learner at a given time would completely fit the learner in terms of his/her particular educational needs at that time.

2. Articulation:

Each level of subject matter should be smoothly connected to the next, glaring gaps or wasteful overlaps in the subject matter will be avoided. Articulation is a dimension of sequencing. Oliver used the term articulation synonymously with “horizontal articulation” or correlation. Articulation is the planned sequencing of content across grade levels, that is, from one grade level to the next to ensure that the next grade level takes up where the previous grade level left off

Articulation is viewed as the meshing of organizing elements across school levels, that is, across elementary and middle or junior high schools, across junior high or middle and senior high schools, and across senior high school and college.

3. Sequence:

This is the logical arrangement of the subject matter. It refers to the deepening and broadening of content as it is taken up in the higher levels. Sequencing is the logical or psychological arrangements of units of content within lessons, units, courses, and grades.

4. Integration:

The horizontal connections are needed in subject areas that are similar so that learning will be elated to one another. Integration in the context of a curriculum construction concept means the blending, fusion, or unification of disciplines. Correlation is the relating of subjects to one another while still maintaining their separateness. Curriculum planners have positioned themselves somewhere on a continuum that appears as follows.


Learning requires a continuing application of the new knowledge, skills, and attitudes or values so that these will be used in daily living. The constant repetition, review and reinforcement of learning are what is referred to as continuity. (Palma, 1992)Continu ty is the planned introduction and reintroduction of the same topics through the grades of a schools system at ever increasing levels of complexity. The principle of continuity is represented in what has been called the spiral curriculum.


Whatever is taught in school should in some way posses transfer value, that is learning should have applicability in either a broad or narrow sense outside of school and after school years.Education should in some way enrich the life of the individual. Curriculum developers should specify objectives, select content and choose instructional strategies that will lead to maximum transfer.

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