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5.1.2 The Process of Designing (Organizing) the School Curriculum

Formulating a school-based curriculum is not different from designing a curriculum in general. The only difference is that content and learning experiences are more localized. Taba (1962: 12) and other writers suggest that the steps below be followed:

  • Diagnosis of needs
  • Formulation of objectives.
  • Selection of content
  • Organization of content
  • Selection of learning experiences
  • Organization of learning experiences
  • Determination of what should be evaluated and the means gesevaluation.

Diagnosis of Need

This is a fact-finding stage in which curriculum organizers assesses the needs of society and the available resources. They might need to find answers to the following questions:

  • Who are the learners?
  • Who are the teachers?bts on lo eboon or evo fooadout
  • Why is the program necessary? blip orgpoog ofth
  • Where will the program be implemented?data a tünte
  • How will it be implemented?

The answers to these questions will become the basis for establishing policy or formulating goals.

2. Formulation of Objectives

Once the goals are established, one needs to determine what the outcomes should be. At this stage, the goals are written as statements of intent that describe the behaviors which children are expected to exhibit as a result of studying the curriculum. Once this is done, curriculum experts must then identify the content.

3. Selection of Content

After the intended outcomes have been determined, for example, to produce children with inquiring minds, experts need to select content tha will help achieve that objective. Subjects such as science, mathematics and geography may be selected. These subjects are based on inquiry. This stage relates the objectives formulated in the second stage to the subjects available from the national curriculum.
4. Organization of Content

The third stage is concerned mainly with the identification of content that can be included. At this stage, the identified content is sequentially arranged to correspond to the maturity and development levels of the learners. Related content is also grouped and all possible relationships established. Once content has been organized, it will be easier to select learning experiences.

5. Selection of Learning Experiences

This stage is concerned with the identification of relevant learning experiences that will enable the learner to understand and appreciate the content. These are identified in any order and put on paper. When all the selected subjects have been reviewed, one then needs to look at sequencing these experiences.

6. Organization of Learning Experiences

Learning experiences are organized in the same manner in which the content is organized. Identified experiences are arranged according to their complexity. The simple tasks come first and the most complex appear later. This will help the learner to go through the course with ease. At this point, experts should be aware that a school must grade content and learning experiences. This is why subject matter is prescribed for each grade, standard or form. These stages determine what should be taught at what level, and how.

After the content and sequence of learning experiences have been determined, evaluation is the final step in the process of designing a school curriculum.

7. Evaluation

Consideration is made at this stage as to whether the desired outcomes have been met. In order to accomplish this, it is necessary to measure learners’ accomplishments and compare them with the objectives identified at the beginning of the curriculum planning process. The results of the evaluation will be used for curriculum improvement.

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