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CHAPTER-7 MOTIVATION DEFINITIONS

Definitions of Motivation:

Motivation is the source of vigour or efforts. Motivation refers to those factors which increase and decrease the vigour of an individual’s activity. Thus, learning is directly proportional to motivation. The greater the motivation, the greater the learning.

Besides the definition given above motivation has also been defined as follows:

D.O. Hebb says that motivation refers to

  • Existence of an organised phase sequence,
  • Its direction and content,
  • Its persistence in giving directions or stabilising of content.

Lowell defines motivation as “A psychological or internal process initiated by some need, which leads to the activity which will satisfy that need.”

“Anything that initiates activity, whether internal or external, is motivation” Hakanson, J.E(1989)

The English word ‘motivation’ originated from ‘movere’ move which means to move. In the field of education, the word ‘motivation’ is interpreted in the form of interest of the pupils for learning and encouragement.

“Motivation is the influence of general pattern of activities indicating and directing the behaviour of the organism” Johnson (1972)

“A motive is a state of the individual which disposes him towards certain behaviour and for seeking certain goals” Wodworth (1968)

“Motivation is an energy change within the person characterized by effective arousal and anticipatory goal relations” Korman, A.R (1974)

“A motive is any particular internal factor or condition that tends to initiate and to sustain activity” Young, P.T (1981)

Motivation is the state of mind, which emerges within a person and directs him towards the goal or the achievement of the desired result. All these initial basic behaviours are motives. Generally motives can be classified into the following two categories:

Motivation is the state of mind, which emerges within a person and directs him towards the goal or the achievement of the desired result. All these initial basic behaviours are motives.

Generally motives can be classified into the following two categories:

  • Primary Motives
  • Secondary Motives

1. Primary Motives:

These are also known as initial motives and some regard them as natural motives because these are concerned with the individual and his community. These motives are hunger, thirst, relief from pain, sleep, comfort, sexual desire, etc. These motives are found in every person. These are born instructs and satisfy the basic needs of the body. These motives satisfy physiological and biological needs such as:

  • Hunger, thirst
  • Resting after being tired.
  • Engaging in work after rest
  • Need for sleeping after remaining sleepless for ‘many hours.
  • Releasing unnecessary wastes from the body just as stool urine and sweat.
  • Satisfying sexual desire
  • Need for protection from storm, rain, cold, heat, fire and danger from wild beasts.

2. Secondary Motives:

These motives are not inborn. While satisfying his physiological needs, man derives these motives also: need for love and belongingness, need for protection, status and acceptance. Energy motives and achievement motives are it’s examples. These motives are responsible for needs and human behaviour and lead it towards definite goals. Thus These motives give birth to social and psychological needs,such as:

  • Need for being independent and self-dependent.
  • Need for protection-related needs.
  • Achievement-related needs
  • Affection-related needs
  • Respect and social acceptance-related needs
  • Need for befriending or leading
  • Need for power and looking socially powerful.
  • Need for self-expression and exposition.

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