Learning has been explained and defined in a number of ways. A few of the views regarding the nature of learning are given below.

1.Munn’s View:

According to Munn, “Learning is more or less permanent incremental modification of behaviour which results from activity, special training or observation.”

2.View of Crow and Crow:

According to Crow and Crow, “Learning involves the acquisition of knowledge, habits and attitudes.”

3.Skinner’s View:

According to Skinner, “Learning is both acquisition and retention.”

4.View of Gates:

According to Gates, “Learning is modification of behaviour through experience.”

5.View of Deniel Bell:

In the words of Daniel Bell, “Learning is modification due to energies of organism and the environment impinging o the organism itself.”

6. View of Thorpe:

Thorpe says, “We can define learning as that process which manifests itself by adaptive changes in the individual’s behaviour as a result of experience.”

7.Kimble’s View:

G.A. Kimble opines, “Learning refers to more or less permanent change in behaviour which occurs as a result of practice.”

8. View of Kingsley and Garrey:

Kingsley and Garrey emphasise that the act of adjustment to environment is the process of learning. According to them, learning is “a process by which an organism, in satisfying his motivation, adopts or adjusts to a situation in which it must modify its behaviour in order to overcome obstacles or barriers.”

Thus, the process of learning includes the following:

  • Acquisition of new experiences.
  • Retention of old experiences in the form of impressions or skills.
  • Development and modification of experience.
  • Synthesis and organisation of the old and the new experiences, resulting in a novel pattern called learning.

A very comprehensive definition given by Crow and Crow is as under:

“Learning is the acquisition of knowledge, habits and attitudes. It involves new ways of doing things, and it operates in an individual’s attempt to overcome obstacles or to adjust to new situations.”

Learning takes place on the cognitive, affective and conative planes. Thus, acquisition of knowledge is cognitive; modification of emotions is affective; and acquisition of skills and habits is conative. In this way, learning can be of various types.

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