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4.3. KOHLBERG THEORY OF MORAL DEVELOPMENT

This theory consists of three levels and six stages:

Level 1 Pre-Conventional Morality:

Typical of children up to the age of nine are Called pre- conventional because young children do not really understand the conventions or rules of a society.

Stage 1 Punishment – Obedience Orientation:

The physical consequences of an action determine goodness or badness. Those in authority have superior power and should be obeyed. Punishment should be avoided by staying out of trouble.

Stage 2 Instrumental Relativist Orientations:

An action is judged to be right if it is instrumental in satisfying one’s own needs or involves and even exchanged Obeying rules should bring some sort of benefit in return.

Level 2 Conventional Morality:

Typical of nine to twenty year olds are called conventional since most nine o twenty year olds conform to the convention of society because they re rules of a society.

Stage 3 Good Boy-Nice Girl Orientation:

The right action is one that would be carried out by someone whose behavior is likely to please or impress others.

Stage 4 Law and Order Orientation:

To maintain the social order, fixed rules must be established and obeyed. It is essential to respect authority.

Level 3 Post – Conventional Morality:

Usually reached only after the age of twenty and only by a small proportion of adults are called post conventional because the moral principle’s that underlie the conventions of a society are understood.

Stage 5 Social Contact Orientations:

Rules needed to maintain the social order should be based, not on blind obedience to authority, but on mutual agreement. Al the same time, the right of the individual should be protected.

Stage 6 Universal Ethical Principle Orientations:

Moral decisions should be made in term of self chose ethical principles, Once principles are chosen, they should be applied in consistent ways.

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