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8.6 Assembling the Test

The preliminary steps in assembling the test for use will be simpler if the items are recorded on cards. This facilitates the task of editing the items and arranging them in the test. The editing includes checking each item to make certain that the item format is appropriate, that the item is relevant to the specific learning outcome it measures, and that it is free from ambiguity, irrelevant clues, and nonfunctioning material. The final group of items selected for the test should also be checked against the table of specifications, or other test plan, to make sure that a representative sample of the learning outcomes and course content is being measured. In arranging the items in the test, all items of one type should be placed together in a separate section. The items within each section should be organized by the learning outcome measured and then placed in order of ascending difficulty. The directions for the test should convey clearly to the pupil the purpose of the test, the time allowed for answering, the basis for answering, the procedure for recording the answers, and what to do about guessing.

Recording Test Items:

When constructing the test items, it is desirable to write each one on a separate index card. In addition to the test item, the card should contain information concerning the instructional objectives, the specific learning outcome, and the content measured by the item. A space should also be reserved for item-analysis information, usually on the back of the card, to allow room to record the data each time the item is used.

Reviewing Test Items:

In reviewing test items, we should try to view the item from the pupil’s viewpoint, as well as from that of the test maker. From these two vantage points, each item should be read carefully and its possible functioning effectiveness judged. The following

questions item.

1. Is the item format appropriate for the learning outcome being measured.

2. Does the knowledge, understanding, or thinking skill called forth by the item match the specific learning outcome and subject-matter content being measured.

  1. Is the point of the item clear.
  2. Is the item free from excessive verbiae.
  3. Is the item of appropriate difficulty.

6. Does the item have an answer that would be

agreed upon by experts.

7. Is the item free from technical and irrelevant clues.

  1. Is the item free from racial, ethnic, and sexual bias.

Arranging Items in the Test:

For most classroom purposes, the items can be arranged by a systematic consideration of:

(1) The types of items used,

(2) The learning outcomes measured

(3) The difficulty of the items, and

The subject matter measured. When two or more item types are included in a test, there is also some advantage in keeping the simpler item types together and placing the more complex ones in the test, as follows:

1.True-false or alternative-response items

2.Matching items3.Short-answer items

4. Multiple-choice items

5.Interpretive exercise.

6.Essay questions

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