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2.Formative Assessment

Formative assessment is used to monitor learning progress during instruction and to provide continuous feed back to both pupil and the teacher concerning learning successes and failures. Feedback to pupils reinforces successful learning and identifies the learning errors that need correction. Feedback to the teacher provides information for modifying instruction and prescribing group and individual remedial work. Formative evaluation depends heavily on specially prepared tests for each segment of instruction (e.g., unit, chapter) and are usually mastery tests that directly measure the segment’s intended learning outcomes. Prescriptions for alternative or remedial instruction can be keyed to each item in the test or to each set of items measuring a separate skill. Tests used for formative evaluation are most frequently prepared by the teacher, but customized tests (tests made to order by publishers) are also available. Observational techniques are, of course, also useful in monitoring pupil progress and identifying learning errors. But because formative evaluation is directed toward improving learning and instruction, the results are typically not used for assigning course grades.According to N.E. Gronlund (1985): “Formative evaluation is used to monitorlearning progress during instruction and to provide continuous feedback to both pupil and teacher concerning learning successes and failures. Feedback to pupils reinforces successful learning and identifies the learning errors that need correction. Feedback to the teacher provides information for modifying instruction and prescribing group and individual remedial work.””Formative evaluation is conducted to monitorIn the views of R.L.Ebel nad D.A. Frisbie (1986): learning is taking place as planned.” Gilbert Sax (1989) states:the instructional process, to determine whether”Formative evaluation takes place during instruction by letting the teacher or evaluator know if students are meeting instructional objectives, if the programme is on time and if there are ways that the programme might be improved. Formative evaluation helps current students to learn more effectively.”W. Wiersma and S.G. Jurs write:”Formative evaluation occurs over a period oftime and monitors students progress.

“Formative Assessment is used to monitor learning progress during instruction. It heavily depends on tests prepared for each unit or chapter. It is concerned with monitoring student progress at various intervals during the programme. It has no concern with assigning grades or promotion and certification. This type of assessment is made by internal staff of the institution.

Characteristics:

1. It continuously provides feed back for pupils.

2. Feed back to pupils reinforces successful learning.

3.It also identifies learning errors that needcorrection.

4. Formative Assessment provides feed back to teacher concerning learning successes and failures.

5. Feed back to teachers provides information for modifying instruction / method. Feed back to teacher also provides information

6.for prescribing remedial work.

7. It evaluates the student progress in detail (chapter wise/topic wise)

8.The ultimate advantage is improvement in learning on behalf of student and improvement in method/instruction on behalf of teacher. 9.This type of assessment is made by internal staff of the institution.

Tools of Formative Assessment:

1. Teacher Made Tests

2.Observation Techniques

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