1.9 Techniques of Assessment & Evaluation

There are various instruments available which yield a wide variety of data for a wide variety of purposes. Selection of an instrument involves identification and selection of the most appropriate one from among alternatives. Techniques of Assessment are as under:1. Observation

2. Interview

3. Questionnaire

4. Test

5. Attitude scale

6. Projective Techniques

7. Checklist

8. Rating scale

A. Observation

Observation is more natural way of assessing children. Observation seeks to ascertain what children think and do by watching them in action as they express themselves in various situations and activities. Direct observation has come to be looked upon as a scientific procedure. It is the first procedure of science. All scientific data must originate in some experience ( Or perception.

Characteristics of Observation:

1. Scientific observation is systematic.

2.Observation is specific.

3.Scientific observation is objective. 4.Scientific observation is quantitative.

5. Observation is recorded immediately.

6. Observation is expert.

7.Observation is verifiable.

Types of Observation

1. Non-Participant Observation

In non-participant observation, the observer is not directly involved in the situation to be observed.

2. Participant Observation

In participant observation, the observer is directly involved in a situation to be observed.

3. Naturalistic Observation

In naturalistic observation, the observer does not control or manipulate anything. He works hard at not affecting the observed situation.

4. Simulation Observation

In simulation observation, the observer creates the situation to be observed. In it observer observes behaviour that occurs infrequently in natural setting e.g. role playing.

5. Structured Observation

In structured observation the observer observes what is already planned to observe. It is a formal observation in which observer observes restricted aspects of the situation.

6. Unstructured Observation

It is non-formal observation which is not preplanned. It allows maximum flexibility in observation to get a true picture of the phenomenon as a whole.


1. Reliable and Objective

Observation is more reliable and objective as actual behaviour of the child is recorded.

2. Natural Setting

It is the study ofan individual in a natural setting so it is more useful than the restricted study in test situation.

3. Useful for Young and Shy Children

This method is very useful for young and shy children. It is easier to observe the young children rather than taking information by interview.

4. No Need of Equipment or Tool

This method does not require special equipment or tools. It can be used by all teachers with a little training or experience.

5.Useful for Individuals as well as Groups

The method of observation is adaptable both to individuals and groups.

6.Immediate Detection of Problems

The problems can be immediately detected and corrective actions can be taken immediately

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