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1.8 Types of Assessment

The way that tests and other evaluation techniques are used in classroom instruction also forms a convenient framework for describing evaluation procedures. One such classification system follows the sequence in which evaluation procedures are likely to be used in classroom instruction. These categories classify the evaluation of pupil performance in the following manner:

1. Determine pupil performance at the beginning of instruction (placement evaluation).

2. Monitor learning progress during instruction(formative evaluation).

3.Diagnose learning difficulties during instruction(diagnostic evaluation).

4. Evaluate achievement at the end of instruction (summative evaluation).The functions of each of these types of classroom evaluation require instruments specifically designed for the intended use.

1. Placement Assessment

Placement evaluation is concerned with the pupil’s entry performance and typically focuses on questions such as.

(1)Does the pupil possess the knowledge and skill needed to begin the planned instruction? For example, does the beginning reader have the necessary reading-readiness skills, or does the beginning algebra student have a sufficient command of computational skills?

(2) To what extent has the pupil already mastered the objectives of the planned instruction? Sufficient mastery might indicate the desirability of skipping certain units or being placed in a more advanced course.

(3) To what extent do the pupil’s interests, work habits, and personal characteristics indicate that one mode of instruction might be better than another (e.g., group instruction versus independent study). Answers to question like these require the use of a variety of techniques: readiness tests, pretests on course objectives, self-report in inventories, observational techniques, and so on. The goal of placement evaluation is to determine the position in the instructional sequence and the mode of instruction that is most likely to benefit the pupil the most.

Features:

1. It evaluates the knowledge and skills of pupils, for a specific subject or class.

2.It assesses to what extent pupils already have achieved the objectives of instructions.

3. It determines pupils performance at the beginning.

4.It helps to decide what to teach (contents).

5. It helps to decide how toteach (methods).

6.It guides in deciding the class or grade of intended to take admission.

7. It determines the status of knowledge, skills and attitude at the time of taking admission.

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