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1.7 Need for Assessment:

The need for assessment and evaluation in education be discussed as under:

1. Selection Decisions:Jobs and seats in different organizations and institutions are limited in number. Usually, there are more applications than seats. Selection of all applicants is not possible. Different tests and techniques are used to select the most suitable candidates. Results of examinations, achievement tests, intelligence tests and aptitude tests are used to select the candidates.Example:i. Selection of students for Engineering and Technology.ii. Selection of students for Medical College.iii.Selection for recruitment in army.

2. Placement Decisions:Usually pupils take a pretest to determine their place or grade or class. Pretest helps in deciding whether students be admitted in class one or two while taking admission in school. Tests indicate the level of knowledge and skills, the pupil possesses. In the light of the status of knowledge and skills, the pupil is placed at some specific grade or class.

3. Classification Decisions:Evaluation and Assessment helps in grouping of students. Achievement test, Aptitude tests, interest inventories, questionnaires, attitude scales and personality tests are used in classification decision.Example:(i)Grouping of science and arts students.(ii)Grouping of Medical and Non-medical students.

4. Diagnostic and Remedial Decisions:Evaluation and Assessment play a role in diagnosing student’s weaknesses and deficiencies. On the basis of which remedial decisions are made. Various tests are employed to achieve this purpose.

5. Feed back:Assessment of students is not an end in itself.The results of the assessment should be used as feed back. The importance of feed back is two fold. It provides information regarding:(i) How well students have learnt.(ii) How well the teacher has taught.

6. Guidance and Counseling:The results of assessment and evaluation are useful for guidance and counseling in the following ways: (i) Assisting pupils with educational and vocational decisions.(ii) Guiding them in selection of curricular andco-curricular activities.(iii) Helping them solve personal and social problem. e.g a student getting high marks in Biology may be guided to opt. medical group in future.

7. Use in Administration:A comprehensive and continuous evaluation programme aids the administerator in the following way(i) Evaluation helps in administrative decisions like placement and grouping of pupils.(ii) It also helps in promotion of pupils. (iii). It assists in determining the effectiveness of course content.(iv)Appraisal methods help in determining theteaching method. (v) Evaluation procedures identify curriculum’s strenghts and weakness.

8. Improves Learning:Evaluation procedures can contribute in improved learning by:(i)Clarifying the intended learning outcome.(ii)Providing short term goals to work.(iii) Offering feed back concerning learning progress.(iv) Overcoming learning difficulties. (v) Selecting future contents.

9. Improves Instruction:Informations gathered through evaluation techniques can be used to assess and improve instruction by judging:(i) Appropriateness and attainability of instructional objectives. (ii) Appropriateness of instructional materials.(iii) Effectiveness of instructional methods.

10. Promotion in Next class:The role of assessment is very important in promoting pupils in next class. The performance of pupil is evaluated in term of marks and grades. On the basis of marks and grades, pupils are promoted in next class.

11. Motivation and Competition:The pupils become aware with the status of knowledge and skills when they are evaluated. By knowing their status or performance, they are motivated to work more and to compete the fellows.

12. Reporting pupil progress to parents:The use of evaluation procedure gives an overall picture of pupil progress. This picture in the form of the report is presented to parents. In this way parents become aware with the achievement of their child.

13. Programme Evaluation:There is always need to evaluate the effectiveness of any educational programme like B.Ed. or M.Ed. programme. Tests and other assessment techniques are employed for this purpose. The programmes are promoted if found effective and closed if found ineffective.

14. Theory Development:The researchers use evaluation and assessment techniques (interview, observation, tests, questionnaire etc.) in order to conduct research. As a result of conducting research, they develop theories. In this way evaluation play a part in developing theories.

15. Assigning Marks to students:Teaching is not the sole responsibility of the teacher. There is also need to assess the effectiveness of teaching in term of student learning. Teacher evaluates the student and assigns marks and grades. Assessment of student achievement is not possible without testing, marking and grading.

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